Forming a collection of a number of software and programming languages, web development stacks are the structure of every application. These include the framework, the server, the programming language, and more.

Any Top-Level Web Application Development Company will tell you the importance of this technology stack. They not only help in developing the application but also in ensuring its efficiency, quality, and productivity.

Read on to know all about the technology stack for web applications and its importance in web application development. So, let’ start the show, right here, right now!

What Is A Technology Stack For Web App Development?

A technology stack or a solution stack is nothing but the list of all the technologies/services used to build and run a single application.

Choosing a technology stack for web development warrants one to understand the process of development of a web application.

To help you get a head-start, here are two vital sides of web application development – client-side programming and server-side programming.

Client-Side Programming

The client-side, or the front-end, web application development includes everything that a user sees on his or her screen. The major components of the front-end stack include:

JavaScript: JavaScript helps make a web page interactive. One can choose from multiple JavaScript frameworks and libraries to ensure a quicker and seamless web development.

HTML and CSS: While Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) directs the display of web page content on a browser, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) styles the content. One can rely on Bootstrap as a framework to manage both HTML and CSS.

Server-Side Programming

The server-side programming includes an application, along with a back-end programming language to power it; a server; and a database.

Although the server-side is not visible to users, it helps power the client-side programming. The major components of the back-end stack include:

Programming Language: You need to decide the programming language in which the application will be written. There are plenty of options such as PHP, Ruby, Python, C, C++, Java, etc.

Frameworks: Nowadays people utilize frameworks that are based on the programming language to build world-class applications. Some examples include Laravel, RoR, Django, CakePHP, etc.

Web Server: Choosing the right web server for hosting your web application is extremely crucial. Some of the popular web server examples comprise Nginx, Apache HTTP Server, Apache Tomcat, etc.

Database: Finally, choosing the right database is highly critical for the performance of your web application. Some of the popular databases are MySQL, SQLite, MongoDB, Firebase, etc.

In order to develop a web application, one needs front-end tools, a database, a server, a framework, and a programming language in place. All of these are together called a stack.

Exploring Various Technology Stack

For some projects, one may need more than just a single web development stack. In order to help you understand the different technology stack for web application development and customise your own.

Here are some of the most popular technology stacks among developers that are used worldwide. These are ideal when you need a bulk of technologies:

MEAN Stack

MEAN Stack
MEAN stack involves a number of open source technologies that are based on JavaScript.

MEAN technology stack for web development uses MongoDB as its database that makes it easier to send and receive data between the server and client side, Express.JS as its backend framework, and Angular.JS as its front-end framework.

While Express.JS uses JavaScript to help developers build software on the server side, Angular.JS eliminates a number of codes to help reduce time to market and is compatible with tablets, smartphones, desktops, smart televisions, and laptops. The Node.JS, too, offers an efficient runtime and is lightweight.

Companies Using Mean Stack

  • Accenture
  • Fiverr

LAMP Stack

LAMP Stack
One of the earliest stacks to be in use, LAMP stack involves the Linux operating system, Apache server, MySQL as its database and PHP as its programming language.

The stack consists of open source software, making it viable to be used with other open source software development stack. The OS used in this web development stack is stable and secure.

The programming language can be substituted with Python or Perl. The server can also be interchanged with Nginx while the database can be replaced with MariaBD.

Companies Using Lamp Stack

  • Wikipedia
  • Tumblr
  • Slack

.NET Stack

The .NET stack comes with a framework that has been tested and proven capable creating dynamic web applications.

In fact, Microsoft’s technology stack for web application boasts of the .NET framework along with the C# programming language being its most vital feature.

The .NET stack consists of more than 60 frameworks, platforms, libraries, SKDs that spread throughout over 13 layers. The stack is, therefore, highly independent as well as inter-operable where programming language is concerned.

It is also one of the most secure stacks, able to keep most attacks at bay. With portability and speed as its vital feature, the .NET stack is highly favoured among developers.

Companies Using .net Stack

  • Microsoft
  • Stack Overflow
  • doubleSlash

Ruby on Rails Stack (ROR)

Ruby on Rails Stack comes with a high library integration. These libraries are termed as gems by the developers. The framework within this technology stack for web applications is extremely scalable and also comes with a built-in database along with being MySQL compatible.

Where one would need to type in several lines in MySQL to pull any data from the database, Ruby on Rails allows you to do so by just typing a few words This speed helps in cutting short the development time significantly.

That’s why many Companies are using Ruby on Rails nowadays.

Companies Using RoR Stack

  • Airbnb
  • Twitter
  • Shopify

Python-Django Stack

Python-Django Stack
The Python-Django stack involves the Python programming language as the base and the Django framework. The stack uses MySQL as its database and the Apache web server.

The Python-Django stack ensures quick development while keeping the quality intact. In case of a smaller time frame, this web development stack can be an ideal choice to build web software or to curate a minimum variable product of a web application.

Companies Using python-django Stack

  • Disqus
  • Spotify
  • Dropbox

Criteria for Choosing Best Technology Stack for Web App

Now that you know what mustn’t be done while choosing the best technology stack for web applications, here’s what should be taken into consideration:

Type Of Application

Technology stacks are tools that help create web applications. Before you purchase any tool, it is crucial to decide what kind of application you are intending to build.

The simpler the web application, the baser the tool you would need. Similarly, mid-level and complex web applications may require more software than just one.

Along with the type of web application, it is also important to realize your business goals due to their ability to impact your technology choice.

If your project needs a website application with low latency, you would need to opt for different technology stacks as compared to when you need heavy load processing applications.

Time To Market

If you are a start-up or a small business, time to market is an important aspect to consider. The quicker you are able to develop your application, the faster you will be able to release it to your users.

This will, undoubtedly, put you ahead of your rivals. Further, lesser time equates lower development cost, making it more affordable. However, the time to market depends majorly on the technology stack you opt for.


If you need your ideas turned into a tangible application, it would certainly cost you. Your choice of technology stack directly impacts its cost of development.

The two major components involved in the cost of web application development include – the developers’ salaries and the app maintenance cost.


Everything is digital today, including most crimes. Cyberattacks are some of the biggest threats to the security of online businesses with financial losses amounting to trillion dollars annually.

It is only evident that you would need to opt for a technology that is apt to curate a secure application.

While it would be foolhardy to say that you can find a technology that is 100% secure, your focus should be on choosing the ideal tool before following safety guidelines.

Ensure that the web application you create follows the security guidelines to keep threats at bay.


The main goal behind creating an application is certainly to make it grow. Scalability, however, can be vertical as well as horizontal.

While you enjoy the popularity of the app with a higher number of users (horizontal scalability), you can also add new components to the application (vertical scalability) while keeping its quality and performance intact.

Project Size

Project Size
The size of the project is yet another aspect that can greatly impact the choice of technology stack for you. The bigger the project, the more complex the choice of tech stack.


When it comes to developing an application, is it vital that you put your current skills and experience to good use.

If your team currently has someone experienced in a particular programming language, you can make use of your strong points to ensure that the application is created on a strong foundation rather than working with something you are unacquainted with.

Defining Requirements

Chalking down your requirements is another criteria you need to fulfil. This includes finding out your target audience, their interests, their age and more in order to meet user expectations.

You also need to define how complex the project would be. Once you have these queries answered, you would be better equipped to figure out the technology stack most apt for your business.

Analyzing Recent Trends

While it is essential to use apps that have been widely used before, it is also vital that you keep the recent trends in mind. The tech stack you use will not only be in use now but also in the future, making it crucial to opt for something that will be well in use in the future too.


While choosing a web technology stack, make sure you opt for open source solutions. These are available free of cost and also allow modifications as required for your project. The cost of development, too, is lowered in this case along with the maintenance cost in the future.

Bug Testing

An important point to note is that many companies end up losing hours of productivity in fixing bugs that could very well have been prevented by bug testing right at start.

Make use of technology that offers easy testing or ones where creating quality apps speedily while keeping bugs to a minimum is guaranteed.

Developer Community

There may be times when you are using technology that come with issues that are tricky to solve.

You can save a great deal of time by opting for technologies that have a good amount of documentation citing problem statements and solutions and a developer community that can help in fixing or overcoming these issues.


This is a vital factor to be considered while choosing a technology stack web applications.

The technologies you choose will help determine how seamlessly you can manage the maintenance of the app even as you scale higher.

The app maintenance depends on two crucial components – the architecture of the web application and the codebase.

Target Audience

You need to identify and understand your target audience before you begin working on your project. This includes finding out their demography, their age, the familiarity with technology, and what would make them consider using your web app.

Business Objective

The objective of your business not only determines the scale of your project but also the choice of technologies and vice versa. Keep in mind the processing load and latency to ensure a seamless functioning of the application.

Ease Of Testing

Testing forms a crucial part of effortless functioning of any web application. Be sure to choose technologies that are easy to test.

How Not To Choose a Technology Stack For Web Development?

Choosing the best technology stack for web applications is not an easy task.

Keeping in mind the expenses you are likely to incur, reforming or modifying the technology stack you have already chosen may prove to leave behind an even greater dent.

Here’s how you shouldn’t choose the web development stack when making your decision:

Don’t Decide Based on Competitor Analysis

One of the greatest mistakes people make while choosing a technology stack for web development is making decisions based on competitor analysis.

While it is certainly wise to take cues from your observation, you need to do something different to be better than your rivals. Doing the same thing as your competitors will only make you as good as them.

Don’t Decide Based on Personal Preferences

Yet another folly would be depending on your personal preferences. Unless you have a really strong knowledge about a technology stack web applications, it is best to rely on expert opinion to make your choice.

If you’d still rather rely on your own instincts, make sure you educate yourself about web application development to make the right choices.

Don’t Decide Based on Previous Projects

Keep in mind that technology is updated more frequently than you pick up projects.

While your last web development stack may have worked splendidly for you, it is likely that there have been quite a few moderations to it, making it vital that you choose again without the bias of a previous success.

Rather than choosing based on how it worked for you before, research once again to see which would work in the current scenario.

Don’t Decide Based on Online Research

The internet has been our go-to for almost everything since its inception. However, relying solely on online research can cost you more than you are willing to pay, owing to the high chances of you making an incorrect choice.

People may all have opposing opinions that will only confuse you rather than help make the right decision. And since choosing a technology stack is more an experience-based decision, it is best to steer clear on online suggestions.

Technology Stack Behind Successful Web Projects

There is a lot you know about choosing the best technology stack for web applications by now and we’re sure many of you are curious about the technology some of the most successful web projects are using. Let’s take a look:


Airbnb, a popular global hospitality service that helps people find rental accommodation, uses Ruby on Rails technology stack.

The entire technology stack of Airbnb comprises JavaScript, React JS, Nginx, Ruby, Rails, Java, MySQL, and Redis.


Shopify is yet another successful web project that relies on Ruby on Rails as its base. It helps entrepreneurs to build powerful online storefronts.

The overall technology stack of Shopify consists of JavaScript, React JS, Nginx, Ruby, Rails, Java, MySQL, Redis, and Memcached.


The popular social media application, Instagram, is based on Python. It’s a mainstream social media app that has attracted millennials in a big way.

If you decode the entire technology stack of Instagram, it comprises JavaScript, React.js, Nginx, Python, Django, PostgreSQL, and Redis.


Quora, a question-answer website, uses Python as the base technology. Here, people can find answers to their queries & also post questions.

The entire technology stack of Quora consists of JavaScript, Zepto.js, Nginx, Python, Pylons, MySQL, and Memcached technologies.

Product Hunt

Product Hunt, a website that allows the sharing of product information, is based on Ruby on Rails. You can get information about any new product.

The technology stack of Product Hunt comprises technologies such as JavaScript, React JS, Nginx, Ruby, Rails, Node.js, PostgreSQL, and Redis.


CodeAcademy, an educational platform for coding, is built on Ruby on Rails. It offers coding classes in more than 15 different programming languages.

The CodeAcademy education platform’s technology stack consists of JavaScript, React.js, Nginx, Ruby, Rails, MongoDB, and Redis.


Pinterest is built on Python technology. It is a popular social network aimed at helping people to find something interesting related to their interests.

The entire technology stack of Pinterest comprises JavaScript, React.js, Nginx, Python, Django, Java, MySQL, and Redis.


Reddit is yet another platform built on Python. It’s a popular news aggregator, web content rating, and discussion platform.

The technology stack of Reddit has JavaScript, React.js, jQuery, Nginx, Python, Flask, Node.js, PostgreSQL, and Memcached.


Facebook is the world’s biggest and most popular social networking platform. The active user base of Facebook is around 3 billion.

If you dissect the technology stack of Facebook, you will find technologies such as JavaScript, React.js, Apache, PHP, MySQL, and Memcached.


A popular video-sharing platform, YouTube, uses Python as its base technology. It allows users to upload videos, leave comments & so on.

If you analyze the technology stack of YouTube, you will find technologies such as PHP, Apache HTTP, MySQL, Linux, HTML5, EC2, and Psyco.


Uber is yet another application that runs on Python. It is the world’s largest transportation company that offers best-in-class taxi services to users.

The technology stack of Uber comprises technologies such as Java, React, Node.js, Nginx, MongoDB, Python, and Backbone.js.


When it comes to the on-demand video streaming service, TV Series & Movies, Netflix is the first name that comes to everyone’s mind.

The tech stack for Netflix, the most popular streaming platform lately, includes Java, MySQL, Node.JS, Hadoop, Flask, Dynomite, and Amazon RDS.


Slack is a professional messenger app used by companies for effective communication. There is an option for private group & direct messaging.

The technology stack for Slack includes technologies such as Java, PHP, JavaScript, MySQL, Apache HTTP, and React.


HubSpot is an all-in-one marketing platform that allows you facilities like Inbound Marketing, Sales, and CRM (Customer Relationship Management).

The technology stack of Hubspot includes MySQL, Java, Swift, Kafka, Amazon S3, Hadoop, HBase, JavaScript, Saas, Swift, etc.


eBay is an American multinational eCommerce organization that facilitates consumer-to-consumer as well as business-to-consumer sales.

The technology stack for eBay includes JavaScript, Node.JS, Java, ES6, Apache Tomcat, Cassandra, Hadoop, Oracle, and Marko.

Read also: Top 12 Essential Full Stack Developer Skills To Look Into


Like every other decision you make, choosing the best technology stack for web application for your business also requires a great deal of research, experience, and expert opinion.

By understanding the basics of technology stack for web development, you can make a more informed choice to help lay the groundwork for your project.

We hope you had a great time reading this article and it proves to be of a great value. Thank You.!

Harikrishna Kundariya

CEO, eSparkBiz

Harikrishna Kundariya, a marketer, developer, IoT, chatbot and blockchain savvy, designer, co-founder, Director of eSparkBiz @Software Development Company where you can Hire Software Developers. His 12+ experience enables him to provide digital solutions to new start-ups based on Web app development.
Frequently Asked Questions
  1. What Is The Best Technology Stack For Web Application?

    Technology Stack and its choice vary from one application to the other. Each application has its own set of requirements and based on that, the best technology stack keeps on changing. So, there can be a fixed solution for this.

  2. What Is A Technology Stack Diagram?

    The technology stack diagram shows the major building blocks of a tech stack. However, there can be some other supporting elements as well.

  3. Is HTML A Web Technology?

    HTML is an acronym for Hyper Text Markup Language. So, HTML is not a pure web technology, but it can be combined with CSS and JS to build documents that can be displayed through the web browser.

  4. Is Python A Technology Stack?

    The simple answer to this question would be NO. Python is a programming language that is a part of any technology stack. But, it's not a technology stack itself.

  5. Which Technology Stack Does Google Utilize?

    The technology stack of Google comprises Adobe (ColdFusion, Flash), AngularJS, Apache (Commons, Groovy), Atlassian JIRA, Backbone.
    Competitor Analysis
    Personal Preferences
    Previous Projects
    Online Research

  6. Is MEAN Stack Worth Learning?

    Oh.! YES, MEAN stack is worth learning if you're someone working as a Front-End Developer as it is flexible and very easy to understand as well.